From Rabbi Ethan Tucker, KH's halachic advisor
Many Siddurim have helpful instructions for what should be skipped when davening with fewer than 10 Jewish adults. Here are the key elements that are omitted when praying in this sort of private setting:
- KADDISH. Any type of kaddish, including Mourners’ Kaddish and Kaddish Derabbanan.
- EXTRA WORDS IN SH'MA. The three words ה' א-להיכם אמת are normally added by the leader at the end of Sh'ma. When there are not ten present, the words אל מלך נאמן are added by individuals before Sh'ma to compensate for the loss of these three words. At the end of Sh’ma, individuals append the word אמת to the end of the final verse (אני ה' א-להיכם).
- REPETITION OF THE AMIDAH. If ten are not present, proceed directly from the silent Amidah to whatever would have followed the repetition.
- READING THE TORAH WITH BLESSINGS. Public reading from a Sefer Torah with blessings is only done with ten people. However, without a minyan, one should still read the Torah reading for that day, ideally with the trope, from a humash, breaking for the Aliyot stops.
- HAFTARAH WITH B'RAKHOT. Without ten people present, the Haftarah is chanted without the appropriate blessings.
- BERAKHAH AHAT ME’EIN SHEVA ON FRIDAY NIGHT. These paragraphs resemble the repetition of the Amidah and are not done with fewer than 10. One should still say the paragraph Vay’khulu following the Amidah, and it is nice to chant the paragraph of Magen Avot, even without the paragraphs before and after it, which are in the form of berakhot.
Basic flow of Friday night and Shabbat morning services this week (Ki Tisa)
Yedid Nefesh (Optional)
Kabbalat Shabbat in its entirety
-- Skip Kaddish Yatom
Blessings before Sh’ma, אל מלך נאמן, Sh’ma, Blessings after Sh’ma
-- Skip Hatzi Kaddish
Private Amidah for Shabbat Arvit
-- Skip paragraph beginning with ברוך
-- Skip paragraph beginning with א-להינו and Kaddish Shalem
-- Skip Kaddish Derabbanan
Mizmor Shir (Psalm 30)
-- Skip Mourners’ Kaddish
Pesukei DeZimrah (Barukh Sheamar through Yishtabah)
-- Skip Hatzi Kaddish
Blessings before Sh’ma, אל מלך נאמן, Sh’ma, Blessing after Sh’ma
Private Amidah for Shabbat Shaharit
-- Skip Kaddish Shalem and sections for taking out the Torah
Read Ki Tisa (Exodus 30:11-34:35) from Humash; Read Parashat Parah (Numbers 19:1-22) from Humash
Read Haftarat Parah (Ezekiel 36:16-38) without blessings
-- Skip Yekum Purkan and following prayers
-- Skip sections for returning Torah and Hatzi Kaddish
Private Amidah for Shabbat Musaf
-- Skip Kaddish Shalem
Ein Keiloheinu and Aleinu (skipping kaddishes)
Anim Zmirot and Adon Olam (optional)