Davening at home without a minyan on Yom Tov

From Rabbi Ethan Tucker, KH's halachic advisor

Many Siddurim have helpful instructions for what should be skipped when davening with fewer than 10 Jewish adults. Here are the key elements that are omitted when praying in this sort of private setting:

  1. KADDISH. Any type of kaddish, including Mourners’ Kaddish and Kaddish Derabbanan.
  2. BARKHU.
  3. EXTRA WORDS IN SH'MA. The three words ה' א-להיכם אמת are normally added by the leader at the end of Sh'ma. When there are not ten present, the words אל מלך נאמן are added by individuals before Sh'ma to compensate for the loss of these three words. At the end of Sh’ma, individuals append the word אמת to the end of the final verse (אני ה' א-להיכם).
  4. REPETITION OF THE AMIDAH. If ten are not present, proceed directly from the silent Amidah to whatever would have followed the repetition.
  5. READING THE TORAH WITH BLESSINGS. Public reading from a Sefer Torah with blessings is only done with ten people. However, without a minyan, one should still read the Torah reading for that day, ideally with the trope, from a humash, breaking for the Aliyot stops.
  6. HAFTARAH WITH B'RAKHOT. Without ten people present, the Haftarah is chanted without the appropriate blessings.
  7. BERAKHAH AHAT ME’EIN SHEVA ON FRIDAY NIGHT. These paragraphs resemble the repetition of the Amidah and are not done with fewer than 10. One should still say the paragraph Vay’khulu following the Amidah, and it is nice to chant the paragraph of Magen Avot, even without the paragraphs before and after it, which are in the form of berakhot.

Basic flow of services for Shavuot 2020/5780

Remember to make an Eruv Tavshilin.

Thursday night
Some have the tradition not to start until actually dark.

Blessings before Sh’ma, אל מלך נאמן, Sh’ma, Blessings after Sh’ma
Vayedaber (special line for Yom Tov)
-- Skip Hatzi Kaddish
Private Amidah for Shalosh Regalim/Three Festivals
Aleinu
Yigdal (optional)
 

Friday Morning

Birkhot Hashahar
-- Skip Kaddish Derabbanan
Mizmor Shir (Psalm 30)
-- Skip Mourners’ Kaddish
Pesukei DeZimrah (Barukh Sheamar through Yishtabah--special tune starts at Hael)
-- Skip Hatzi Kaddish
Blessings before Sh’ma (for weekdays), אל מלך נאמן, Sh’ma, Blessing after Sh’ma
Private Amidah for Shalosh Regalim/Three Festivals

Full Hallel

-- Skip Kaddish Shalem and sections for taking out the Torah

Akdamut (optional)

Reading for Shavuot Day 1 (Exodus 19-20) from Humash (includes 10 commandments, which should be read in the "lower trope" marked in Humashim and Tikkunim); Maftir reading is from Numbers 28:26-31

Read Haftarah for Shavuot Day 1 (Ezekiel 1:1-28; 3:12) without blessings

Ashrei
-- Skip sections for returning Torah and Hatzi Kaddish
Private Amidah for Musaf for Shalosh Regalim
-- Skip Kaddish Shalem
Ein Keiloheinu and Aleinu (skipping kaddishes)
Anim Zmirot and Adon Olam (optional) 
 

Friday night

Start Kabbalat Shabbat at Mizmor Shir
-- Skip Kaddish Yatom
Blessings before Sh’ma, אל מלך נאמן, Sh’ma, Blessings after Sh’ma
Veshamru and Vayedaber
-- Skip Hatzi Kaddish
Private Amidah for Shalosh Regalim, with additions for Shabbat
Vayekhulu
-- Skip paragraph beginning with ברוך
Magen Avot
-- Skip paragraph beginning with א-להינו and Kaddish Shalem
Aleinu
Yigdal (optional)
 

Shabbat morning

Birkhot Hashahar
-- Skip Kaddish Derabbanan
Mizmor Shir (Psalm 30)
-- Skip Mourners’ Kaddish
Pesukei DeZimrah (Barukh Sheamar through Yishtabah--special tune starts at Hael)
-- Skip Hatzi Kaddish
Blessings before Sh’ma (for Shabbat), אל מלך נאמן, Sh’ma, Blessing after Sh’ma
Private Amidah for Shalosh Regalim/Three Festivals, with additions for Shabbat

Full Hallel

Megillat Rut

-- Skip Kaddish Shalem and sections for taking out the Torah

Reading for Shavuot Day 2 (Deuteronomy 14:22-16:17) from Humash; Maftir reading is from Numbers 28:26-31

Read Haftarah for Shavuot Day 2 (Habakuk 2:20-3:19) without blessings

-- Skip Yekum Purkan and following prayers

Yizkor, Av Harahamim

Ashrei
-- Skip sections for returning Torah and Hatzi Kaddish
Private Amidah for Musaf for Shalosh Regalim, with additions for Shabbat
-- Skip Kaddish Shalem
Ein Keiloheinu and Aleinu (skipping kaddishes)
Anim Zmirot and Adon Olam (optional)