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Davening at home without a minyan on Shabbat

From Rabbi Ethan Tucker, KH's halachic advisor

Many Siddurim have helpful instructions for what should be skipped when davening with fewer than 10 Jewish adults. Here are the key elements that are omitted when praying in this sort of private setting:

  1. KADDISH. Any type of kaddish, including Mourners’ Kaddish and Kaddish Derabbanan.
  2. BAR'CHU.
  3. EXTRA WORDS IN SH'MA. The three words ה' א-להיכם אמת are normally added by the leader at the end of Sh'ma. When there are not ten present, the words אל מלך נאמן are added by individuals before Sh'ma to compensate for the loss of these three words. At the end of Sh’ma, individuals append the word אמת to the end of the final verse (אני ה' א-להיכם).
  4. REPETITION OF THE AMIDAH. If ten are not present, proceed directly from the silent Amidah to whatever would have followed the repetition.
  5. READING THE TORAH WITH BLESSINGS. Public reading from a Sefer Torah with blessings is only done with ten people. However, without a minyan, one should still read the Torah reading for that day, ideally with the trope, from a humash, breaking for the Aliyot stops.
  6. HAFTARAH WITH B'RACHOT. Without ten people present, the Haftarah is chanted without the appropriate blessings.
  7. B'RACHA AHAT ME’EIN SHEVA ON FRIDAY NIGHT. These paragraphs resemble the repetition of the Amidah and are not done with fewer than 10. One should still say the paragraph Vay’chulu following the Amidah, and it is nice to chant the paragraph of Magen Avot, even without the paragraphs before and after it, which are in the form of b'rachot.
Mon, December 5 2022 11 Kislev 5783